Sahel Analyst Journals (SAJ)

Publication Ethics


SAJMS is double blind peer reviewed journal. It is necessary to agree upon standards of ethical behaviour for all stakeholders involved in the publishing i.e. the author, the editor, the peer reviewer and the publisher. The ethics statements are based on the Publication Best Practices Guidelines for Journal Editors.


Decision on the Publication of Article

The Chief Editor and the Editorial Board are responsible for deciding which of the articles accepted for publication (after undergoing peer review) should be published. The Chief Editor and the Associate Editors may be guided by the policies of the journal's Editorial Board and subjected to such legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism.

Articles’ Reviewers on behalf of Editorial Board contributes to editorial decisions through peer review of manuscripts and editorial communications to the author with due regard to improving the paper quality.

The Editors and Business Managers must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, Editorial Advisers and the publisher. In other words, manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to, or discussed with, others except as authorized by the Chief Editor and the Associate Editor.

Fair play

An Editor shall evaluate the manuscript(s) solely on their intellectual content without regard to sentiments (race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy) on the particulars of the author(s).


Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used by anyone who has a view of the manuscript while handling it in his or her own research without the express written consent of the author.

Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the assigned manuscript or unable to provide a prompt review should notify the Chief Editor and the Associate Editor and excuse himself/herself from the review process.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. There shall be no personal criticism of the author. Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that had been previously reported elsewhere should be adequately cited (both in-text and reference citation). A reviewer should without hesitation draw the attention of the Chief Editor/Associate Editors on any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not review manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.


The Journal Business Managers are responsible for handling correspondences and other transactions therein and may confer with other business editor in making routine business decision on behalf of the journal's Editorial Board.


Reporting Standards

Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as objective discussions therein. A paper should contain sufficient details and references to permit others to replicate the work where need be. Avoid fraudulent practices or inaccurate statements which constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.

Data Access and Retention

If need be, authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such, if practicable, and should in any event, be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, this must be adequately and appropriately cited in both in-text and reference section.

Multiple Publications

Author(s) should not publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. For author(s) to submit the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.

Duplicate Submission

Manuscripts that are found to have been published elsewhere, or to be under review elsewhere constitute duplicate submission and may attract publication sanctions. If authors have used their own previously published work, or work that is currently under review, as the basis for a submitted manuscript, they are required to cite the previous work and indicate how their submitted manuscript offers novel contributions to knowledge beyond the scope of the previous work.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Proper acknowledgment(s) of the work of others is very essential. Authors should cite previous work or publication that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Sources of funding (if any) for the research reported in the article should be duly acknowledged at the end of the article.


Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the article. In other words, all those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no concocted co-authors are included on the paper. Make sure that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the Chief Editor/Associate Editor and cooperate with the editors to retract or correct the paper.